Fuel Emulsification and its Principles

Theory: When Heavy Fuel Oil / Furnace Oil is combusted, the burners first atomize it into droplets of 100 to 200 microns in size, but as combustion takes place only on the exposed surface of the droplet and the larger droplets do not burn completely, leaving behind unburned carbon deposits in the combustion chamber or as particulate matter in flue gases. This is the main reason for high fuel consumption, carbon deposits and uncontrolled temperatures.

HFO-Emulsification: is an advance process that blends Furnace Oil with Water (with water ratios as low as 5% to as high as 20%, depending on the application), into a very fine mixture known as Fuel Emulsion. The water is reduced to extremely small droplets of 5-10 microns in size and it gets firmly embedded in the Oil phase. And in order to retain the stability of the emulsion so that the Oil and water does not separate, the water is treated with our proprietary surfactant and stabilizers.

HFO under microscope
Normal HFO under 100x Magnification showing dirt, sludge, carbon
particles, asphaltenes and water.

Emulsified HFO under microscope
Our Emulsified HFO under 100x Magnification showing a
completelely homogenized medium and the tiny dots are 2-5
micron water droplets.


Emulsified-Fuel Combustion: When the burner or an injector atomizes Emulsified Fuel, its highly homogenized nature produces droplets much finer in size than that of normal H.F.O. But more importantly, once fired into the Furnace or the Combustion chamber, the embedded water in the Emulsified Fuel explodes into steam in a series of tiny micro-explosions due to the sudden exposure to extreme heat. This rapid transformation shatters the host petroleum droplet into a microscopic mist having 10-fold more surface area and contact with air. It burns down completely leaving no unburned carbon or soot thus releasing all the calories trapped in the Fuel. This unique combustion characteristic of emulsified fuels is known as "Secondary Atomization."


Normal F.O. vs Emulsified F.O. Combustion

Emulsified Fuel Combustion


Secondary Atomization in Real Flames

In Furnace Burners
Secondary Atomization

The bright yellow-white flames igniting the fuel spray right at the burner mouth is the indication of Secondary Atomization in Emulsified-Heavy Fuel Oil Combustion.
In Boilers
Boiler Emulsion flame

Emulsified Heavy Fuel Oil (Furnace Oil) burns with a much brighter flame than stock fuel. The Flame length is also considerably shorter, more turbulent with better thermal transfer which results with at least a 10% fall in waste heat generation along with lower emissions and better economy.